As a lawful permanent resident (green card holder) of the US, you can live and work in the US permanently. You can get a green card through many ways. Your family member who is a US citizen or a green card holder can sponsor you for a green card. You can also get a green card through a job offer and also through the DV lottery program.
You can enjoy many benefits as a green card holder. You do qualify for government sponsored financial aid for educational purposes. Universities and colleges accept less tuition fee, also known as “in-state” tuition or “resident” tuition. Savings is significant as in most cases they pay three to four times lower than what other foreign nationals pay. Apart from these, you can work in any company located in US territory regardless of job function, hours/week, etc (except for certain companies that hire only US citizens). Employer sponsorship does not come in to the picture either. There are certain jobs in the US that require security clearance and only green card holders and US citizens can get those. Therefore, there are plenty of job opportunities for green card holders.
You are allowed to start your own business and create your own corporation. Social security is one of the benefits you will get when you retire. To qualify for this you should have worked for 10 years (40 quarters to be precise) before your retirement. Getting your loved ones to be with you in the US is another significant factor. You can apply for permanent resident status for your spouse and unmarried minor children under 21. Under such circumstances, the green card that you got for your family will still be valid even if you lose your job or die.
If you have a work permit, though your spouse and minor unmarried children under 21 can stay in the US as dependent, your kids have to get student visas to study and work visas if they intend to work. But after becoming green card holders, they are permitted to stay in the US even after turning 21 and even if they get married.
The benefits do not end with these. You will have access to security clearances and become eligible for government grants and be exempted from export restrictions. Though you have the privilege of most legal rights under US law, you do not have voting rights which is only for US citizens. But, as a green card holder, you can qualify to apply for American citizenship in future, once you fulfill the eligibility requirements needed while applying for Naturalization. You can remain a green holder forever and it is not mandatory that you apply for citizenship. If your current country permits dual citizenship,you can get U.S. citizenship without giving up your current nationality.